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Grand Lodge of Maine

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons

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Maine Masonic Text Book
(the Blue Book)

formerly known as Drummonds Monitor

Contents of the Blue Book

MONITORIAL

CHAPTER I.
Masonry Its Organization. History
CHAPTER II.
Opening and Closing a Lodge. Form for Minutes
CHAPTER III.
Admission of Candidates. The First Degree
CHAPTER IV
The Second, or Fellow Crafts' Degree
CHAPTER V
The Third or Master Mason's Degree
CHAPTER VI.
Installation of the Officers of a Lodge
CHAPTER VII.
Reception of Visitors
CHAPTER VIII.
Masonic Processions
CHAPTER IX.
Funeral Service
CHAPTER X.
Installation of Grand Officers
CHAPTER XI.
Constitution of a New Lodge
CHAPTER XII.
Dedication of Masonic Halls
CHAPTER XIII.
Laying the Corner Stone of a Public Edifice
Miscellaneous

JURISPRUDENCE AND DIGEST

CHAPTER XIV
Sources of Masonic Law
CHAPTER XV
The Ancient Landmarks
CHAPTER XVI.
The Ancient Charges
CHAPTER XVII.
The Old Regulations
CHAPTER XVIII.
Masonic Offenses and Their Punishment
CHAPTER XIX.
Incorporation of "Trustees of
the Charity Fund"


Digest of Decisions

 

FOR THE

USE OF LODGES

ORIGINALLY DRUMMOND'S MONITOR

SIXTEENTH EDITION

COPYRIGHTED 1923

Maine Printing Exchange, Inc. 1997

PREFACE TO THE 16TH EDITION

The Maine Masonic Text Book compiled by P.G.M. Josiah H. Drummond was originally published by the Grand Lodge of Maine in 1877 for the purpose of assisting the lodges in resolving the questions which continually arise, and as a monitor of the various ceremonies.

The sixteenth edition has been printed without the "Digest of Decisions." It is important to publish the "Digest of Decisions in a format which can be readily updated. In past formats, each Grand Master's Decisions have had to remain unprinted until the supply of text books ran out, and a new edition was printed. Not having the Digest of Decisions printed in the Text Book allows the book to remain current.

The "Digest of Decisions" can be purchased separately or with the Constitution and Standing Regulations of the Grand Lodge of Maine.

John E. Anagnostis Grand Secretary

CHAPTER I

MASONRY. ITS ORGANIZATIONS. HISTORY

The Institution of Masonry, or Freemasonry (for these terms are used indiscriminately), is founded upon the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man: it. therefore, necessarily teaches Morality, Brotherly Love, and Charity: its method of teaching is chiefly by symbols: it has many forms and ceremonies, but these are all intended to teach and impress upon the mind the great principles of the Institution: its votaries are seeking after Truth, symbolized by Light.

A Provincial Grand Lodge was formed in Massachusetts under the authority of the Grand Lodge of England, in 1733; and another, under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, in 1769: during the revolution, these Bodies declared themselves independent of their Mother Grand Lodges, and, in 1792, both united as the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. The first lodge in Maine PORTLAND) was chartered by the English Provincial Grand Lodge; the second (WARREN) by the Scottish Provincial Grand Lodge; and the third (LINCOLN) by the United Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.

When Maine became an independent State in 1820, the Lodges, thirty-one in number, formed the Grand Lodge of Maine, in accordance with the well settled principle of Masonic law, that the lodges in every independent State are of right entitled to form a Grand Lodge for that State. The Grand Lodge of Maine exercises exclusive Masonic jurisdiction in this State, and any lodge, organized by any other authority, is illegal and clandestine, with which, or with whose members, no Masonic intercourse can be held.

CHAPTER II

A Lodge cannot he legally opened in this State without the presence of the Charter or Charter Certificate as well as the Furniture. When the hour of meeting has arrived and the W. Master has ascertained that the charter is present and the lodge furnished, he gives one rap with the gavel, directs the Brethren to he clothed and the Officers to invest themselves with their jewels and repair to their respective stations, and proceeds to open the lodge. He must open it on the third degree, unless the business he the conferring of the first or second degree, as all other business must be transacted in a Master's lodge. To ballot on petitions, there must he at least seven members of the lodge present: for other purposes the ritual number is sufficient, unless the bylaws otherwise provide.

A prayer must he made or read, or a charge given, at opening or closing a lodge

PRAYER AT OPENING A LODGE

Most merciful God! Supreme Architect of Heaven and Earth. We beseech Thee to guide and protect these brethren here assembled, and fulfill at this time that divine promise Thou wert pleased to make to those who should be gathered together in Thy name. Teach us to know and serve Thee aright Bless us and prosper us in all our laudable undertakings, and grant that our conduct may tend to Thy glory, to the advancement of Freemasonry, and finally to our own salvation in that blessed kingdom where Thy children shall find rest. AMEN

Response. So mote it be.

ANOTHER

O Lord, our Heavenly Father, the High and Mighty Ruler of the Universe, who dost from Thy throne behold all the dwellers upon earth, direct us, we beseech Thee, in all our doings, with Thy most gracious favor, and further us with Thy continual help, that in all our works begun, continued and ended in Thee, we may glorify Thy holy name and as Thou hast taught us, in Thy Holy Word, that all our doings, withoutcharity, are nothing worth; send Thy Holy Spirit, and pour into our hearts the most excellent gift of Charity, the very bond of peace and of all virtues, without which whosoever liveth is counted dead before Thee.

Bless and prosper, we pray Thee, every branch and member of this our Fraternity, throughout the habitable earth. May Thy kingdom of peace, love and harmony come. May Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven, and the whole world be filled with Thy glory. Amen.

Response. So mote it be.

CHARGE AT OPENING A LODGE

Behold! how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!

It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard, that went down to the skirts of his garments.

As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the Lord commanded a blessing, even life forevermore.

PRAYER AT CLOSING A LODGE

O God, our Creator, Preserver, and Benefactor, unto whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid, we heartily thank Thee for the fraternal communion that we have been permitted through Thy kind providence to enjoy. May we be ever mindful that it is in Thee that we live, move and have our being; that every good gift cometh from Thee. Bless our humble labors for the promotion of truth and love, unity and peace. Continue to extend Thy gracious favor to our beloved institution, and make it more and more an agency for good among men.

Dismiss us with thy blessing. Go with us as we return to our homes. Be with us while engaged in the active affairs and duties of this life. So influence our hearts and minds that we may faithfully practice out of the lodge the great moral duties which are inculcated in it; and with reverence study and obey the laws which Thou hast given us in Thy Holy Word; and to Thee shall be all the praise. Amen.

Response. So mote it be.

CHARGE AT CLOSING A LODGE

Brethren: We are about to quit this sacred retreat of friendship and virtue, to mix again with the world. Amidst its concerns and employment's forget not the duties which you have heard so frequently inculcated and so forcibly recommended in this lodge. Be diligent, prudent, temperate, discreet. remember that around this altar you have promised to befriend and relieve every brother who shall need your assistance. You have promised, in the most friendly manner to remind him of his errors, and aid a reformation. These generous principles are to extend further. Every human being has a claim upon your good offices. Do good unto all. Recommend it more especially to "the household of the faithful."

Finally, Brethren, be ye all of one mind; live in peace; and may the God of love and peace delight to dwell with and bless you.

BENEDICTION

May the blessing of Heaven rest upon us, and all regular Masons! May brotherly love prevail, and every moral and social virtue cement us! Amen.

Response. So mote it be.

FORM FOR MINUTES

Stated Communication of Portland Lodge, No.1, held in Masonic Hall in Portland, Wednesday, October 4, A. D. 1876, A. L. 5876.

Officers Present

[Give the name of each officer, designating those temporarily filling any chair by the word" as "between the name and the office.)

Members Present

[The old custom of giving the names of the members present, is, in some places, no longer observed; but the Secretary who fails to record them neglects his duty.]

Visitors Present

[Give their names and the name of the lodge from which each hails.)

Lodge opened on the Master's degree. The records of the last stated meeting, and of all subsequent special meetings, were read and confirmed.

The petition of John Doe for the degrees of masonry, with the usual deposit, was received and referred to the Committee of Inquiry.

The committee of Inquiry reported upon the petition of Richard Roe; their report was accepted, the ballot spread, and Richard Roe was elected to receive the degrees within the gift of the lodge.

The Committee of Inquiry reported upon the petition of John Roe; their report was accepted, the ballot spread, and he was declared rejected.

[The other business transacted is recorded in a similar manner.]

The minutes were read and approved.

No further business appearing, the lodge was duly closed in peace and harmony.

W.M.

Attest,
Secretary.

It is the prerogative of the Master to determine what proceedings of the lodge are proper to be recorded, and he should sign the minutes, thereby giving them his sanction.

CHAPTER III
ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES

THE FIRST DEGREE

When a candidate, whom a Mason is willing to recommend, desires to apply for initiation, care must be taken that he presents his petition to the lodge nearest his residence. The determination of the place of one's residence is often difficult, especially in Maine, from which so many young men go away into other States to seek employment. the residence, intended by our Constitution, is the home where the party has the right to vote and is bound to pay taxes. This test will generally settle the question, but no rule can be given by which every case can be decided.

By a regulation, adopted by most of the Grand Lodges in America, no candidate for the mysteries of Masonry can be initiated without having been proposed at a previous meeting of the lodge (except by dispensation from the Grand Master) in order that no one may be introduced without due inquiry relative to his character and qualifications.

The application must be in writing over the signature of the applicant, and state his age, residence, that he has resided in the state one year and in the jurisdiction of the lodge the six months next preceding (except as elsewhere provided) and whether he has made application to and been rejected by any lodge, also give all the information called for in the Questionnaire attached to and made a part of the application; and it is further required the application, questions and answers be filed by the lodge for permanent preservation.

QUESTIONNAIRE

This blank should be filled out by the Candidate in his own handwriting and is a part of his application.

1. Name in full, (Middle Initial not sufficient)

2. Place and exact date of birth ?

3. Single, married or widower?

4. If married, how many in family?

5. Do you believe in God, the Author, Creator and Ruler of the universe?

6. What church do you attend?

7. Of what secret societies or organizations are you now a member?

8. Name of your father and address if living

9. Is he or was he a Mason?

10. Places in which you have lived during past ten years, with approximate time in each place

11. If not a professional man give names and addresses of your employers or business associates for the past ten years

12. Have you ever been respondent in a criminal case in court? If so give particulars

13. Where were you educated?

14. Have you ever before applied for the degrees to any Lodge of Masons?

15. If so, where? When?

16. Is your financial position such that in becoming a Mason, you will be able to pay promptly the annual dues and assessments, if any, of the Masonic lodge of which you may become a member?

17. Is this application made of your own free will, or was it solicited?

    I To the Officers and Brethren of.......................................Lodge

of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, at ............................................................

The subscriber, aged_______ years, and by occupation a ______________respectfully states that he is a resident of _________________ that he has actually resided within the jurisdiction of said lodge for more than six months last past, and within the State of Maine for the year past; that, unbiased by friends, and uninfluenced by mercenary motives, he freely and voluntarily offers himself a candidate for the mysteries of Freemasonry; that if admitted he will cheerfully conform to all the ancient established usage's and customs of the Fraternity; that he knows no physical, legal or moral reason which should prevent his becoming a Freemason; and that he has before offered himself as a candidate to any lodge.

    [Deposit$]

We hereby certify, that we are personally acquainted with Mr____________________________ above named, and do hereby recommend and propose him as a worthy candidate for the mysteries of Masonry, and that the statements in his petition as to his residence are true.

The foregoing application was presented to __________________________________,

Lodge, on the ______________ day of _______________

A.L. 60____________and referred to a Committee of Inquiry.

Attest__________________________ Secretary

I  FIRST

We have made all due inquiry relative to the character, standing and eligibility of the above applicant, and do cheerfully recommend him as suitably qualified, worthy of the honor he solicits, and within the jurisdiction of this lodge.

__________________Committee of Inquiry

Great care should be taken that the candidate fully understands the statements in the petition, and to ascertain definitely whether he has ever before applied for the degrees to any lodge, under any jurisdiction. If practicable, the candidate should examine the Constitution of the Grand Lodge and the bylaws of the lodge before he presents his petition.

When the petition is presented, if it appears on its face that the lodge has no jurisdiction of the candidate, it should not be received, but be returned to him; if the lodge appears to have jurisdiction, the petition should be referred to the Committee of Inquiry: after its reference, it cannot be withdrawn by the petitioner until after a favorable ballot. The first duty of the committee is to ascertain beyond question whether the lodge has jurisdiction: if they find that it has not, they should report that fact to the lodge, and if jurisdiction cannot be obtained, the petition must be returned. If the candidate does not reside within the jurisdiction of the lodge, or has not resided there the required time, or is physically disqualified, or has been previously rejected by another lodge, the lodge has no jurisdiction unless it obtains the consent of the other lodge, in those cases in which consent gives jurisdiction. If the committee find that the lodge has jurisdiction, they then inquire and report on the fitness of the candidate to be made a Masonic duty to be performed with Zealous care and prudence, and "without fear, favor or affection": and the character of their report, whether favorable or unfavorable, should never be entered of record.

If the candidate is accepted, and no objection is made, the Master proceeds to initiate him at such time as he deems proper.

FIRST SECTION.

During the preparation of the candidate, only the Junior Deacon and the Stewards should be in the preparation room with him.

Before the candidate is prepared for the first degree he should give unequivocal answers to the following questions:

I. Do you seriously declare upon your honor, before these witnesses, that, unbiased by friends, and uninfluenced by mercenary motives, you freely and voluntarily offer yourself a candidate for the mysteries of Masonry?

II. Do you seriously declare upon your honor, before these witnesses that you are prompted to solicit the privileges of Masonry, by a favorable opinion conceived of the Institution, a desire for knowledge, and a sincere wish to be serviceable to your fellow creatures?

III. Do you seriously declare upon your honor, before these witnesses, that you will cheerfully conform to all the ancient established usage's and customs of the Fraternity?

FORMS OF PRAYER SUITABLE TO BE USED AT THE RECEPTION OF A CANDIDATE

I. Vouchsafe Thine aid, Almighty Father of the Universe, to this present convention; and grant that this candidate for Masonry may dedicate and devote his life to Thy service, and become a true and faithful Brother among us. Endue him with a competency of Thy Divine Wisdom, that, by the influence of the pure principles of our Order, he may the better be enabled to display the beauties of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth, to the honor of Thy Holy Name. Amen.

Response. So mote it be.

II. O Thou, who art the Author of peace and Lover of concord, bless us in the exercise of those kind and social affections Thou hast given us. May we cherish and display them as our honor and our joy. May this, our friend, who is now to become our Brother, devote his life to Thy service, and consider a right the true principles of his engagements. May he be endowed with wisdom to direct him in all his ways; strength to support him in all his difficulties; and beauty to adorn his moral conduct. And may we each and all walk within compass, and square our actions by the dictates of of conscience and virtue. May we appreciate and follow the examples of the wise and good, and be ever obedient to the precepts of Thy Holy Word. Amen  Response. So Mote it be

III. Almighty and Everlasting God, In whom alone is our trust, and who, in Thy holy Word, hast brought life and immortality to light, defend this Thy servant with Thy heavenly grace, that he may continue Thine forever. Strengthen him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding; endue him with the fear of Thy Holy name; increase in him, more and more, the spirit of Charity and the love of Truth. Let Thy Fatherly hand ever be over him; let Thy Spirit ever be with him; and so lead him in the knowledge and the obedience of Thy Holy Word, that, having finished his course below, he may at last pass peacefully and joyfully to mansions of rest in Thy Temple above, that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. Amen

Response. So mote it be.

LESSON.

Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for Brethren to dwell together in unity ! It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard; that went down to the skirts of his garments; as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion; for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even life forevermore.

The following hymn may be used instead of the lesson:

      Music  Auld Lang Syne.

I. 

Behold! how pleasant and how good, 
For Brethren such as we, 
Of the Accepted Brotherhood, 
To dwell in unity.

II. 

'Tis like the oil on Aaron's head, 
Which to his feet distills;
Like Hermon's dew, so richly shed 
On Zion's sacred hills.

III. 

For there the Lord of light and love, 
A blessing sent with power;
O may we all this blessing prove, 
E'en life for evermore.

IV. 

On Friendship's altar rising here, 
Our hands now plighted be,
To live in love, with hearts sincere, 
In peace and unity.

THE LAMBSKIN, OR WHITE LEATHER APRON.

Is an emblem of innocence, and the badge of a Mason; more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle; more honorable than the Star and Garter, or any other Order that can be conferred upon you at this or any future period, by King, Prince, Potentate, or any other person, except he be a Mason, and which I hope you will wear with pleasure to yourself and honor to the Fraternity.

THE TWENTY-FOUR INCH GAUGE.

Is an instrument made use of by operative Masons to measure and lay out their work; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of dividing our time. It being divided into twenty-four equal parts, is emblematical of the twenty-four hours of the day, which we are taught to divide into three equal parts, whereby we find eight hours for the service of God and a distressed worthy Brother; eight for our usual vocations; and eight for refreshment and sleep.

COMMON GAVEL.

The common gavel is an instrument made use of by operative Masons to break off the corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder's use, but we as Free and Accepted Masons are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of divesting our minds and consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby fitting us as living stones for that spiritual building, that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

SECOND SECTION.

THE BADGE OF A MASON.

The lamb has in all ages been deemed an emblem of innocence. He, therefore, who wears the lambskin as a badge of Masonry, is thereby continually reminded of that purity of life and conduct which is essentially necessary to his gaining admission into the Celestial Lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides.

THIRD SECTION.

A LODGE

Is a certain number of Masons duly assembled, having the Holy Bible, Square and Compasses, with a charter or warrant empowering them to work.

THE FORM OF A LODGE.

* * * * *

THE SUPPORTS OF A LODGE.

Our Institution is said to be supported by three great pillars, called WISDOM, STRENGTH and BEAUTY. It is necessary there should be Wisdom to contrive, Strength to support, and Beauty to adorn all great and important undertakings.

Contents

COVERING OF A LODGE.

It is no less than the clouded canopy or starry decked heaven, where all good masons hope at last to arrive, by the aid of that theological ladder which Jacob in his vision saw ascending from earth to heaven called Jacob's Ladder, the three principal rounds of which are called Faith, Hope and Charity. The greatest of these is Charity, because our Faith may be lost in sight, Hope ends in fruition, but Charity extends beyond the grave through the boundless realms of eternity.

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FURNITURE OF A LODGE.

The HOLY BIBLE, the SQUARE and the COMPASSES. The Holy Bible we dedicate to God, the Square to the Master and the Compasses to the Craft.

The Bible we dedicate to God because it is the inestimable gift of God to man *** the Square to the Master, because it is the proper Masonic emblem of his office; and the compasses to the Craft, because by its use, we are taught to circumscribe our desires, and keep our passions within due bounds.

Contents

THE ORNAMENTS OF A LODGE .

The Mosaic Pavement, Indented Tessel, and Blazing Star.

The Mosaic Pavement is a representation of the ground floor of King Solomon's Temple; the Indented Tessel, of that beautiful tesselated border, or skirting, which surrounded it,with the Blazing Star in the center. The Mosaic Pavement is emblematical of human life, checkered with good and evil; the beautiful border which surrounds it, of those manifold blessings and comforts which surround us, and which we hope to obtain by a faithful reliance on Divine Providence, which is hieroglyphically represented by the Blazing Star in the center.

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LIGHTS -  JEWELS

The movable jewels are the SQUARE, LEVEL and PLUMB.

The Square teaches morality, the Level equality, and the Plumb rectitude of life.

The immovable jewels are the ROUGH ASHLAR, the PERFECT, ASHLAR and the TRESTLEBOARD.

The Rough Ashlar is a stone as taken from the quarry, in its rude and natural state. The Perfect Ashlar is a stone made ready by the hands of the workmen, to be adjusted by the working tools of the Fellow Craft. The TrestleBoard is for the Master to draw his designs upon.

By the Rough Ashlar we are reminded of our rude and imperfect state by nature; by the Perfect Ashlar, of that state of perfection at which we hope to arrive, by a virtuous education, our own endeavors, and the blessing of God; and, by the TrestleBoard, we are also reminded, that, as the operative workman erects his temporal building agreeably to the rules and designs laid down by the Master on his TrestleBoard, so should we, both operative and speculative, endeavor to erect our spiritual building agreeably to the rules and designs laid down by the Supreme Architect of the Universe, in the great books of Nature and Revelation, which are our spiritual, moral and Masonic TrestleBoard.

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SITUATION.

Lodges should be situated due east and west

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DEDICATION.

Lodges in ancient times were dedicated to King Solomon  In modern times to St. John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist, two eminent Christian patrons of Freemasonry; and since their time there has been represented in every regular and well furnished lodge, a certain point within a circle embordered by two perpendicular parallel lines, representing Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist. Upon the top of the circle rests the Book of Holy Scriptures. The point represents an individual Brother; the circle, the boundary line of his duty. In going around this circle, we necessarily touch on the two parallel lines, as well as on the Book of Holy Scriptures; and while a Mason keeps himself circumscribed within their precepts, it is impossible that he should materially err.

Contents

TENETS.

The tenets of your profession as a Mason are Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth.

Contents

BROTHERLY LOVE.

By the exercise of Brotherly Love we are taught to regard the whole human species as one family the high and low, rich and poor; who, as created by one Almighty Parent, and inhabitants of the same planet, are to aid, support and protect each other. On this principle, Masonry unites men of every country, sect and opinion, and conciliates true friendship among those who might otherwise have remained at a perpetual distance.

Contents

RELIEF.

To relieve the distressed is a duty incumbent on all men, but particularly on Masons, who profess to be linked together by an indissoluble chain of sincere affection. To soothe the unhappy, sympathize with their misfortunes, compassionate their miseries, and restore peace to their troubled minds, is the grand aim we have in view. On this basis we form our friendships and establish our connections.

Contents

TRUTH.

Truth is a divine attribute, and the foundation of every virtue. To be good and true is the first lesson we are taught in Masonry. On this theme we contemplate, and by its dictates endeavor to regulate our conduct. Hence, while influenced by this principle, hypocrisy and deceit are unknown among us; sincerity and plain dealing distinguish us, and the heart and tongue join in promoting each other's welfare and rejoicing in each other's Prosperity.

Contents

* * * * *

CARDINAL VIRTUES.

The four Cardinal virtues are Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice Temperance

Is that due restraint upon our affections and passions, which renders the body tame and governable, and frees the mind from the allurements of vice. This virtue should be the constant practice of every Mason, as he is thereby taught to avoid excess, or the contracting of any licentious or vicious habit, the indulgence in which might lead him to disclose some of those valuable secrets which he has promised to conceal and never reveal, and which would consequently subject him to the contempt and detestation off all good Masons.****

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FORTITUDE

Is that noble and steady purpose of the mind whereby we are enabled to undergo any pain, peril or danger, when prudentially deemed expedient. This virtue is equally distant from rashness and cowardice; and, like the former, should be deeply impressed upon the mind of every Mason, as a safeguard or security against any illegal attack that may be made, by force or otherwise, to extort from him any of those valuable secrets, with which he has been so solemnly entrusted, and which was emblematically represented upon his first admission into the lodge;** ***

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PRUDENCE

Teaches us to regulate our lives and actions agreeably to the dictates of reason, and is that habit by which we wisely judge and prudentially determine, on all things relative to our present as well as to our future happiness. This virtue should be the peculiar characteristic of every Mason, not only for the government of his conduct while in the lodge, but also when abroad in the world. It should be particularly attended to in all strange and mixed companies, never to let fall the least sign, token or word, whereby the secrets of Freemasonry may be unlawfully obtained *

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JUSTICE

Is that standard or boundary of right, which enables to render unto every man his just due, without distinction. This virtue is not only consistent with divine and human laws, but is the very cement and support of civil society; and as justice in a great measure constitutes the really good man, so should it be the invariable practice of every Mason never to deviate from the minutest principle thereof;

Contents

FREEDOM, FERVENCY AND ZEAL.

* * * * *

CHARGE AT INITIATION INTO THE FIRST DEGREE.

BROTHER: AS you are now introduced into the first principles of Masonry, I congratulate you on being accepted into this ancient and honorable order; ancient, as having subsisted from time immemorial; and honorable, as tending in every particular, so to render all men who will be conformable to its precepts. No institution was ever raised on a better principle, or more solid foundation; nor were ever more excellent rules and useful maxims laid down, than are inculcated in the several Masonic lectures. The greatest and best of men in all ages have been encourages and promoters of the art, and have never deemed it derogatory from their dignity to level themselves with the fraternity, extend their privileges, and patronize their assemblies.

There are three great duties, which, as a Mason, you are charged to inculcate to God, your neighbor, and yourself. To God, in never mentioning his name but with that reverential awe which is due from a creature to his creator; to implore his aid in all your laudable undertakings, and to esteem him as the chief good: to your neighbor, in acting upon the square, and doing unto him as you wish he should do unto you: and to yourself, in avoiding all irregularity and intemperance, which may impair your faculties or debase the dignity of your profession. A zealous attachment to these duties will ensure public and private esteem.

In the State, you are to be a quiet and peaceful subject, true to your government, and just to your country; you are not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion, but patiently submit to legal authority, and conform with Cheerfulness to that government of the country in which you live.

In your outward demeanor be particularly careful to avoid censure or reproach. Let not interest, favor, or prejudice, bias your integrity or influence you to be guilty of a dishonorable action. Although your frequent appearance at our regular meetings is earnestly solicited, yet it is not meant that Masonry should interfere with your necessary vocations; for these are on no account to be neglected; neither are you to suffer your zeal for the Institution to lead you into argument with those who, through ignorance, may ridicule it. At your leisure hours, that you may improve in Masonic knowledge, you are to converse with well informed brethren, who will be always as ready to give, as you will be ready to receive, instruction.

Finally: keep sacred and inviolable the mysteries of the order, as these are to distinguish you from the rest of the community, and mark your consequence among Masons. If, in the circle of your acquaintance, you find a person desirous of being initiated in to Masonry, be particularly attentive not to recommend him, unless you are convinced he will conform to our rules; that the honor, glory and reputation of the Institution may be firmly established, and the world at large convinced of its good effects.

Contents

CHAPTER IV.

THE SECOND, OR FELLOWCRAFTS' DEGREE.

The Master is the judge as to the proper time for the advancement of a candidate: but be should not be advanced until he has made himself sufficiently familiar with the preceding degree to be able to work his way into a lodge open on that degree. If objections are made to his advancement, they must be submitted to the lodge and their sufficiency determined by a two thirds vote.

FIRST SECTION

LESSON

Thus he showed me: and behold the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumbline, with a plumbline in his hand.

And the Lord said unto me, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, a plumbline. Then said the Lord, I behold, I will set a plumbline in the midst of my people? Israel: I will not again pass by them any more.

In some jurisdictions, the following lesson is read:

Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. And now abideth faith, hope and charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.

The following hymn may be used in place of the lesson:

Music Shirland.

I.

Had I the gift of tongues,
Great God, without thy grace,
My loudest words, my loftiest songs, 
Would be but sounding brass.

II.

Though Thou shouldst give me skill, 
Each mystery to explain;
Without a heart to do Thy will,
My knowledge would be vain,

III.

Had I such faith in God, 
As mountains to remove,
No faith could work effectual good, 
That did not work by love.

IV.

Grant, then, this one request, 
Whatever be denied, 
That love divine may rule my breast,
And all my actions guide.

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THE PLUMB, SQUARE AND LEVEL.

The plumb is an instrument made use of by operative masons, to raise perpendiculars; the square, to square their work; and the level, to lay horizontals; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of them for more noble and glorious purposes: the plumb admonishes us to walk uprighty in our several stations before God and man, squaring our actions by the square of virtue, and remembering that we are traveling upon the level of time, to "that undiscovered country, from whose bourne no traveler returns."

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SECOND SECTION

CORN, WINE AND OIL

Masonry is considered under two denominations: operative and speculative.

OPERATIVE MASONRY

By Operative Masonry we allude to a proper application of the useful rules of architecture, whence a structure will derive figure, strength and beauty, and from which will result a due proportion and just correspondence in all its parts. It furnishes us with dwellings, and convenient shelters from the vicissitudes and inclemency's of the seasons; and while it displays the effects of human wisdom, as well in the choice as in the arrangement of the sundry materials of which an edifice is composed, it demonstrates that a fund of science and industry is implanted in man, for the best, most salutary and beneficent purposes.

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SPECULATIVE MASONRY

By Speculative Masonry we learn to subdue the passions, act upon the square, keep a tongue of good report, maintain secrecy, and practice charity. It is so far interwoven with religion as to lay us under obligations to pay that rational homage to Deity which at once constitutes our duty and our happiness. It leads the contemplative to view with reverence and admiration the glorious works of creation, and inspires him with the most exalted ideas of the perfection's of his Divine Creator.

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IN SIX DAYS

God created the heaven and the earth, and rested upon the seventh day; the seventh therefore our ancient brethren consecrated as a day of rest from their labors, thereby enjoying frequent opportunities to contemplate the glorious works of the creation and to adore their great Creator.

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PEACE, UNITY AND PLENTY. THE GLOBES.

The globes are two artificial spherical bodies, on the convex surface of which are represented the countries, seas, and various parts of the earth, the face of the heavens, the planetary revolutions, and other particulars.

The sphere, with the parts of the earth delineated on its surface, is called the terrestrial globe; and that with the constellations, and other heavenly bodies, the celestial globe.

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THE USE OF THE GLOBES.

Their principal use, beside serving as maps to distinguish the outward parts of the earth, and the situation of the fixed stars, is to illustrate and explain the phenomena arising from the annual revolution, and the diurnal rotation of the earth round its own axis. They are the noblest instruments for improving the mind, and giving it the most distinct idea of any problem or proposition, as well as enabling it to solve the same. Contemplating these bodies, we are inspired with a due reverence for the Deity and the works, and are induced to encourage the studies of astronomy, geography, navigation, and the arts dependent on them, by which society has been so much benefited.

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OF ORDER IN ARCHITECTURE.

By order in architecture, is meant a system of all the members, proportions and ornaments of columns and pilasters; or, it is a regular arrangement of the projecting parts of a building, which, united with those of a column, form a beautiful, perfect, and complete whole.

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OF ITS ANTIQUITY.

From the first formation of society, order in architecture may be traced. When the rigor of seasons obliged men to contrive shelter form the inclemency of the weather, we learn that they first planted trees on end, and then laid others across to support a covering. The bands, which connected those trees at the top and bottom, are said to have given rise to the idea of the base and capital of pillars, and from this simple hint originally proceeded the more improved art of architecture.

The five orders are thus classed: The Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite.

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THE TUSCAN

Is the most simple and solid of the five orders. it was invented in Tuscany, whence it derives its name. Its column is seven diameters high; and its capital, base, and entablature have but few mouldings. The simplicity of the construction of this column renders it eligible where ornament would be superfluous.

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THE DORIC

Which is plain and natural, is the most ancient, and was invented by the Greeks. Its column is eight diameters high, and has seldom any ornaments on base or capital, except mouldings; though the frieze is distinguished by triglyphs and metopes, and triglyphs compose the ornaments of the frieze. The solid composition of this order gives it a preference, in structures where strength and noble simplicity are chiefly required.

The Doric is the best proportioned of all the orders. The several parts of which it is composed are founded on the natural position of solid bodies. In its first invention it was more simple than in its present state. In after times, when it began to be adorned, it gained the name of Doric; for when it was constructed in its primitive and simple form, the name of Tuscan was conferred on it. Hence the Tuscan precedes the Doric in rank, on account of its resemblance to that pillar in its original state.

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THE IONIC

Bears a kind of mean proportion between the more solid and delicate orders. Its column is nine diameters high; its capital is adorned with volutes, and its cornice has dentals. There is both delicacy and ingenuity displayed in this pillar; the invention of which is attributed to the lonians, as the famous temple of Diana, at Ephesus, was of this order. It is said to have been formed after the model of an agreeable young women of an elegant shape dressed in her hair; as a contrast to the Doric order, which was formed after that of a strong, robust young man.

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THE CORINTHIAN.

The richest of the five orders, is deemed a masterpiece of art. Its column is ten diameters high, and its capital is adorned with two rows of leaves and eight volutes, which sustain the abacus. The frieze is ornamented with curious devices, the cornice with dentals and modillions.

This order is used in stately and superb structures. It was invented at Corinth, by Callimachus, who is said to have taken the hint of the capital of this pillar from the following remarkable circumstance: Accidentally passing by the tomb of a young lady he perceived a basket of toys covered with a tile, placed over an a canthus root, having been left there by her nurse. As the branches grew up they encompassed the basket, till, arriving at the tile, they meet with an obstruction, and bent downward. Callimachus, struck with the object, set about imitating the figure: the base of the capital he made to represent the basket; the abacus the tile; and the volutes the bending leaves.

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THE COMPOSITE

Is compounded of the other orders, and was contrived by the Romans. Its capital has the two rows of leaves of the Corinthian, and the volutes of the Ionic. Its column has the quarterround, as the Tuscan and Doric order; is ten diameters high, and its cornice has dentals, or simple modillions. This pillar is generally found in buildings where strength, elegance and beauty are displayed.

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OF THE INVENTION OF

ORDER IN ARCHITECTURE.

The ancient and original orders of architecture, revered by Masons, are no more than threeThe Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian which were invented by the Greeks. To these the Romans have added two: the Tuscan, which they made plainer than the Doric, and the Composite, which was more ornamental, if not more beautiful, than the Corinthian.

The first three orders alone, however, show invention and particular character, and essentially differ from each other; the two others have nothing but what is borrowed, and differ only accidentally; the Tuscan is the Doric in its earliest state; and the Composite is the Corinthian, enriched with the Ionic. To the Greeks, therefore, and not to the Romans, we are indebted for what is great, judicious and distinct in architecture.

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THE FIVE SENSES.

HEARING, SEEING, FEELING, SMELLING AND TASTING.

The first three, Hearing, Seeing and Feeling, are deemed peculiarly essential to Masons

HEARING

Is that sense by which we distinguish sounds, and are capable of enjoying all the agreeable charms of music. By it we are enabled to enjoy the pleasures of society, and reciprocally to communicate to each other our thoughts and intentions, our purposes and desires; while thus our reason is capable of exerting its utmost power and energy. The wise and beneficent Author of Nature intended, by the formation of this sense, that we should be social creatures, and receive the greatest and most important part of our knowledge by the information of others. For these purposes we are endowed with hearing, that, by a proper exertion of our rational powers, our happiness may be complete.

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SEEING

Is that sense by which we distinguish objects, and in an instant of time, without change of place or situation, view armies in battle array, figures of the most stately structure, and all the agreeable variety displayed in the landscape of nature. By this sense we find our way in the pathless ocean, traverse the globe of earth, determine its figure and dimensions, and delineate any region or quarter of ii By it we measure the planetary orbs, and make new discoveries in the sphere of the fixed stars. Nay, more: by it we perceive the tempers and dispositions, the passions and affections of our fellow creatures, when they wish most to conceal them; so that, though the tongue lie and dissemble, the countenance would display the hypocrisy to the discerning eye. In fine, the rays of light which administer to this sense are the most astonishing parts of the animated creation, and render the eye a peculiar object of admiration.

Of all the faculties, sight is the noblest. The structure of the eye, and its appurtenances, evinces the admirable contrivance of nature for performing all its various external and internal motions; while the variety displayed in the eyes of different animals, suited to their several ways of life, clearly demonstrates this organ to be the masterpiece of nature's work.

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FEELING

Is that sense by which we distinguish the different qualities of bodies: such as heat and cold, hardness and softness ,roughness and smoothness, figure, solidity, motion and extension.

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SMELLING

Is that sense by which we distinguish odors, the various kinds of which convey different impressions to the mind. Animal and vegetable bodies, while exposed to the air, continually send forth effluvia of vast subtlety, as well in the state of life and growth as in the state of fermentation and putrefaction. These effluvia, being drawn into the nostrils with the air, are the means by which all bodies are smelled. Hence it is evident that there is a manifest appearance of design in the great Creator's having planted the organ of smell in the inside of that canal, through which the air continually passes in respiration.

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TASTING

Enables us to make a proper distinction in the choice of our food. The organ of this sense guards the entrance of the alimentary canal, as that of smelling guards the entrance of the canal for respiration. From the situation of both these organs, it is plain that they were intended by nature to distinguish wholesome food from that which is nauseous. Everything that enters into the stomach must undergo the scrutiny of tasting; and by it we are capable of discerning the changes which the same body undergoes in the different compositions of art, cookery, chemistry, pharmacy

Smelling and tasting are inseparably connected; and it is by the unnatural kind of life men commonly lead in society, that these senses are rendered less fit to perform their natural offices.

On the mind all our knowledge must depend: what, therefore, can be a more proper subject for the investigation of Masons? By anatomical dissection and observation we become acquainted with the body; but it is by the anatomy of the mind alone we discover its power and principles.

To sum up the whole of this transcendent measure of God's bounty to man, we shall add that memory, imagination, taste, reasoning, moral perception, and all the active powers of the soul, present a vast and boundless field for philosophical disquisition, which far exceeds human inquiry,and are peculiar mysteries, known only to nature and to nature's God, to whom we and all are indebted for creation, preservation, and every blessing we enjoy.

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OF THE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES GRAMMAR

Teaches the proper arrangement of words, according to the idiom or dialect of any particular people; and that excellency of pronunciation, which enables us to speak or write a language with accuracy, agreeably to reason and correct usage.

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RHETORIC

Teaches us to speak copiously and fluently on any subject, not merely with propriety, but with all the advantages of force and elegance; wisely contriving to captivate the hearer by strength of argument and beauty of expression, whether it be to entreat or exhort, to admonish or applaud.

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LOGIC

Teaches us to guide our reason discretionary in the general knowledge of things, and directs our inquiries after truth. It consists of a regular train of argument, whence we infer, deduce and conclude, according to certain premises laid down, admitted or granted; and in it are employed the faculties of conceiving, judging, reasoning and disposing; all of which are naturally led on from one gradation to another, till the point in question is finally determined.

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ARITHMETIC

Teaches the powers and properties of numbers, which is variously effected, by letters, tables, figures and instruments. By this art, reasons and demonstrations are given for finding out any certain number, whose relation or affinity to another is already known or discovered.

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GEOMETRY

Treats of the powers and properties of magnitudes in general, where length, breadth and thickness are considered, from a point to a line, from a line to a superficies, and from a superficies to a solid.

A point is a dimensionless figure; or an indivisible part of space.

A line is a point continued, and a figure of one capacity, namely, length.

A superficies is a figure of two dimensions, namely, length and breadth.

A solid is a figure of three dimensions, namely, length, breadth and thickness.

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OF THE ADVANTAGES OF GEOMETRY.

By this science, the architect is enabled to construct his plans and execute his designs; the general, to arrange his soldiers; the engineer, to mark out ground for encampments; the geographer, to give us the dimensions of the world, and all things therein contained, to delineate the extent of seas, and specify the divisions of empires, kingdoms and provinces; by it, also, the astronomer is enabled to make his observations, and to fix the duration of times and seasons, years and cycles. In fine, geometry is the foundation of architecture, and the root of the mathematics.

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MUSIC

Teaches the art of forming concords, so as to compose delightful harmony, by a mathematical and proportional arrangement of acute, grave and mixed sounds. This art, by a series of experiments, is reduced to a demonstrative science, with respect to tones and the intervals of sound. It inquires into the nature of concords and discords, and enables us to find out the proportion between them by numbers.

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ASTRONOMY

Is that divine art, by which we are taught to read the wisdom, strength and beauty of the Almighty Creator, in those sacred pages, the celestial hemisphere. Assisted by astronomy, we can observe the motions, measure the distances, comprehend the magnitudes, and calculate the periods and eclipses of the heavenly bodies. By it we learn the use of the globes, the system of the world, and the preliminary law of nature.

While we are employed in the study of this science, we must perceive unparalleled instances of wisdom and goodness, and through the whole creation trace the glorious Author by his works.

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OUTER DOOR.

* * * * *

EMBLEM OF PLENTY.

* * * * *

INNER DOOR

* * * * *

G

* * * * *

GEOMETRY

The first and noblest of sciences, is the basis on which the superstructure of Masonry is erected.

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ITS MORAL ADVANTAGES.

By Geometry we may curiously trace Nature through her various windings to her most concealed recesses. By it we discover the power, wisdom and goodness of the Grand Artificer of the Universe, and view with delight the proportions of this vast machine. By it we discover how the planets move in their respective orbits, and demonstrate their various revolutions. By it we account for the return of seasons, and the variety of scenes which each season displays to the discerning eye. Numberless worlds are around us, all framed by the same Divine Artist, which roll through the vast expanse, and are all conducted by the same unerring law of Nature.

A survey of Nature, and the observation of her beautiful proportions, first determined man to imitate the divine plan, and study symmetry and order. This gave rise to societies, and birth to every useful art. The architect began to design, and the plans which he laid down, being improved by time and experience, have produced works which are ale admiration of every age.

The lapse of time, the ruthless hand of ignorance, and the devastation's of war, have laid waste and destroyed many valuable monuments of antiquity, on which the utmost exertions of human genius have been employed. Even the Temple of Solomon, so spacious and magnificent, and constructed by so many celebrated artists, escaped not the unsparing ravages of barbarous force. Freemasonry, notwithstanding, still survives. The attentive ear receives the sound from the instructive tongue, and the mysteries of Masonry are safely lodged in the repository of faithful breasts. Tools and implements of architecture symbols most expressive have been selected by the Fraternity to imprint on the memory wise and serious truths; and thus, through a succession of ages, are transmitted, unimpaired, the most excellent tenets of our Institution.

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CHARGE AT INITIATION INTO THE

SECOND DEGREE

BROTHER: Being advanced to the second degree of Masonry, we congratulate you on your preferment. The internal, and not the external, qualifications of a man are what Masonry regards. As you increase in knowledge, you will improve in social intercourse.

It is unnecessary to recapitulate the duties which, as a Mason, you are bound to discharge; or enlarge on the necessity of a strict adherence to them, as your own experience must have established their value.

Our laws and regulations you are strenuously to support; and be always ready to assist in seeing them duly executed. You are not to perjure or aggravate the offenses of your brethren; but, in the decision of every trespass against our rules, you are to judge with candor, admonish with friendship, and reprehend with justice.

The study of the liberal arts, that valuable branch of education, which tends so effectually to polish and adorn the mind, is earnestly recommended to your consideration; especially the science of geometry, which is established as the basis of our art. Geometry, or Masonry, originally synonymous terms, being of a divine and moral nature, is enriched with the most useful knowledge; while it proves the wonderful properties of nature, it demonstrates the more important truths of morality.

Your past behavior and regular deportment have merited the honor which we have now conferred; and in your new character it is expected that you will conform to the principles of the order, by steadily preserving in the practice of every commendable virtue.

Such is the nature of your engagements as a Fellowcraft , and to these duties you are bound by the most sacred of ties.

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CHAPTER V.

THE THIRD, OR MASTER MASON'S DEGREE.

FIRST SECTION

* * * * *

LESSON

Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, while the evil days come not, nor the years draw nigh when thou shalt say, I have no pleasure in them; while the sun, or the light, or the moon, or the stars, be not darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain; in the day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong men shall bow themselves, and the grinders cease because they are few, and those that look out of the windows be darkened; and the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is low, and he shall rise up at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters of music shall be brought low; also, when they shall be afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail; because man goeth to his long home, and the moumers go about the streets; or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.

he following hymn may be used instead of the lesson:

Music Sinai, or Windham.

I.

Let us remember in our youth,
Before the evil days draw nigh, 
Our GREAT CREATOR, and his TRUTH!

Ere memory fail and pleasure fly; 
Or sun, or moon, or planet's light Grow dark, or clouds return in gloom; 
Ere vital spark no more incite; 
When strength shall bow, and years consume.

II.

Let us in youth remember Him Who formed our frame, 
and spirits gave, Ere windows of the mind grow dim, 
Or door of speech obstructed wave; 
When voice of bird fresh terrors wake,

And music's daughters charm no more; 
Or fear to rise, with trembling shake,
Along the path we travel o'er.

III

In youth, to God let memory cling,
Before desire shall fail, or wane, 
Or e'er be loosed life's silver string,

For man to his long home doth go, 
And mourners group around his urn; 
Our dust to dust again must flow, 
And spirits unto God return.

* * * * *

WORKING TOOLS.

They are all the implements of Masonry, indiscriminately, but more especially the Trowel.

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THE TROWEL

Is an instrument made use of by operative Masons to spread the cement which unites the building into one common mass; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of spreading the cement of Brotherly Love and Affection that cement which unites us into one sacred band, or society of Friends and Brothers, among whom no contention should ever exist, save that noble contention, or rather emulation, of who best can work and best agree.

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* * * * *

SECOND SECTION

* * * * *

PRAYER

Thou, 0 God ! knowest our downsitting and our uprising, and understandest our thoughts afar off. Shield and defend us from the evil intentions of our enemies, and support us under the trials and afflictions we are destined to endure, while traveling through this vale of tears. Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble. He cometh forth as a flower, and is cut down; he fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not. Seeing his days are determined, the number of his months are with Thee; Thou hast appointed his bounds that he cannot pass; turn from him that he may rest, till he shall accomplish his day. For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease. But man dieth and wasteth away; yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he? As the waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth and drieth up, so man lieth down, and riseth not up till the heavens shall be no more. Yet, 0 Lord I have compassion on the children of Thy creation; administer them comfort in time of trouble, and save them with an everlasting salvation. Amen.

Or this form may be used:

O God, in whose hand our breath is, we bow in Thy presence with a sense of the frailty and uncertainty of this mortal life. It is appointed unto man once to die. But we thank Thee, that in Thy great mercy Thou hast made known to us the life beyond the grave, so that all may look hopefully forward beyond the shadows that now surround us. Help us so to perform the duties assigned to us here, that when we shall depart this life, we may die in hope of a blissful immortality, and Thy Name shall have the praise forever. Amen.

Music Hymn

I.

Solemn suikes the funeral chime,
Notes of our departing time;
As we journey here he low,
Through a pilgrimage of woe.

II.

Lord of all ! below, above,
Fill our hearts with youth and love;
When dissolves our earthly tie, 
Take us to Thy Lodge on high.

* * * * *

THE BROKEN COLUMN
THIRD SECTION
THE TEMPLE

There are three Grand Masonic Pillars, denominated Wisdom, Strength and Beauty, represented by ****

The Temple was supported by fourteen hundred and fifty-three columns, and two thousand nine hundred and six pilasters; all hewn from the finest Parian marble.

There were employed in building the Temple, three Grand Masters, three thousand three hundred Masters or Overseers of the work, eighty thousand Fellow Crafts or Hewers in the Mountains, and Seventy thousand Entered Apprentices or bearers of burden, Apprentices or Bearers of Burdens,

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EMBLEMS

There are two classes of Masonic emblems, the Exoteric and Esoteric.

The Exoteric (or monitorial) class consists of Three Steps; the Pot of Incense; the Beehive; the Book of Constitutions guarded by the Tyler's Sword; the Sword pointing to a Naked Heart; the All Seeing Eye; the Anchor and Ark; the Fortyseventh Problem of Euclid; the Hour Glass; and the Scythe.

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THE THREE STEPS

Usually delineated on the Master's Carpet are emblematical of the three principal stages of human life, viz: Youth, Manhood and Age, because in Youth we are as Entered Apprentices; in Manhood as Fellow crafts, and in Age as Master Masons. In Youth, as Entered Apprentices, we ought industriously to occupy our minds in the attainment of useful knowledge; in Manhood, as Fellow Crafts, we should apply that knowledge to the discharge of our respective duties to God, our neighbor, and ourselves; so that in Age, as Master Masons, we may enjoy the happy reflection consequent on a well spent life, and die in the hope of a glorious immortality.

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THE POT OF INCENSE

Is an emblem of a pure heart, which is always an acceptable sacrifice to Deity; and as this glows with fervid heat, so should our hearts continually glow with gratitude to the great and beneficent Author of our existence for the manifold blessings and comforts we enjoy.

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THE BEEHIVE

Is an emblem of Industry, and recommends the practice of that virtue to all created beings, from the highest seraph in heaven to the lowest reptile of the dust. It teaches us that, as we came into the world rational and intelligent beings, so we should ever he industrious ones; never sitting down contented while our fellow creatures around us are in want, especially when it is in our power to relieve them without inconvenience to ourselves.

When we take a survey of Nature, we view man in his infancy, more helpless and indigent than the brute creation; he lies languishing for days, months, and years, totally incapable of providing sustenance for himself, of guarding against the attacks of the wild beasts of the field, or sheltering himself from the inclemency's of the weather.

It might have pleased the great Creator of heaven and earth to have made man independent; but, as dependence is one of the strongest bonds of society, mankind were made dependent on each other for protection and security, as they thereby enjoy better opportunities of fulfilling the duties of reciprocal love and friendship. Thus was man formed for social and active life, the noblest part of the work of God; and he that will so demean himself as not to be endeavoring to add to the common stock of knowledge and understanding, may be deemed a drone in the hive of nature, a useless member of society, and unworthy of our protection as Masons.

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THE BOOK OF CONSTITUTIONS,
GUARDED BY THE TYLER'S SWORD

Reminds us that we should he ever watchful and guarded in our thoughts, words, and actions, particularly when before the uninitiated; ever bearing in remembrance those truly Masonic virtues, silence. and circumspection. 

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THE SWORD POINTING
TO A NAKED HEART

Demonstrates that justice will sooner or later overtake us; and although our thoughts, words, and actions may be hidden from the eyes of man, yet that

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ALL SEEING EYE

Whom the Sun, Moon, and Stars obey, and under whose watchful care even Comets perform their stupendous revolutions, pervades the inmost recesses of the human heart, and will reward us according to our merits.

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THE ANCHOR AND ARK

Are emblems of a well grounded hope and a well spent life. They are emblematical of that divine ark which safely wafts us over this tempestuous sea of troubles, and that anchor which shall safely moor us in a peaceful harbor, where the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary shall find rest.

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THE FORTYSEVENTH PROBLEM OF EUCLID

Was an invention of our ancient friend and Brother, the great Pythagoras, who, in his travels through Asia, Africa, and Europe, was initiated into several orders of Priesthood, and is said to have been raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason. This wise philosopher enriched his mind abundantly in a general knowledge of things, more especially in Geometry, or Masonry. On this subject he drew out many problems and theorems; and among the most distinguished he erected this when, in the joy of his heart he exclaimed, Eureka! signifying, in the Grecian language, I have found it; and upon the discovery of which he is said to have sacrificed a hecatomb. It teaches Masons to be general lovers of the arts and sciences.

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THE HOURGLASS

Is an emblem of human life. Behold, how swiftly the sands run, and how rapidly our lives are drawing to a close! We cannot, without astonishment, behold the little particles which are contained in this machine, how they pass away almost imperceptibly, and yet, to our surprise, in the short space of an hour they are all exhausted. Thus wastes man! Today he puts forth the tender leaves of hope; tomorrow blossoms, and bears his blushing honors thick upon him; the next day comes a frost, which nips the shoot; and when he thinks his greatness is still aspiring, he falls like autumn leaves, to enrich our mother earth.

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THE SCYTHE

Is an emblem of time, which cuts the brittle thread of life and launches us into eternity. Behold, what havoc the Scythe of time makes among the human race; if by chance we should escape the numerous evils incident to childhood and youth, and, with health and vigor, arrive at the years of manhood, yet withal we must soon be cut down by the all devouring Scythe of time, and he gathered into the land where our fathers have gone before us.

The following, or some other suitable CHARGE, may be given:

BROTHER: Your Zeal for the institution of Masonry, the progress you have made in the mysteries, and your conformity to our regulations, have pointed you out as a proper object of our favor and esteem.

You are now bound by duty, honor and gratitude to be faithful to your trust; to support the dignity of your character on every occasion; and to enforce, by precept and example, obedience to the tenets of the order.

In the character of a Master Mason, you are authorized to correct the errors and irregularities of your uninformed brethren, and to guard them against a breach of fidelity. To preserve the reputation of the fraternity unsullied, must be your constant care; and for this purpose it is your province to recommend to your inferiors obedience and submission; to your equals, courtesy and affability; to your superiors, kindness and condescension. Universal benevolence you are always to inculcate; and, by the regularity of your own behavior, afford the best example for the conduct of others less informed. The ancient landmarks of the order, entrusted to your care, you are carefully to preserve; and never suffer them to be infringed, or countenance a deviation from the established usage's and customs of the fraternity.

Your virtue, honor and reputation are concerned in supporting with dignity the character you now bear. Let no motive, therefore, make you swerve from your duty, violate your vows, or betray your trust; but be true and faithful, and imitate the example of that celebrated artist whom you this evening represent Thus you will render yourself deserving of the honor which we have conferred, and merit the confidence that we have reposed.

Every candidate who shall receive the third degree in any lodge in this jurisdiction and sign the bylaws shall become a member of said lodge and the Secretary shall record his name upon the list of membership. CONS. 133

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